Complete BCA fourth semester Pokhara University Syllabus 2020. Here you will find the updated syllabus of  BCA fourth semester of Pokhara University. This syllabus is the refined version of the original version of the BCA syllabus of PU.

BCA fourth semester syllabus Pokhara University

BCA IV Semester Complete Syllabus

Computer Graphics and Multimedia (3-1-2)


Theory Practical Total
Sessional 30 20 50
Final 50 - 50
Total 80 20 100

Course Objective:

1.The students will get knowledge about basic concepts of drawing.
2.The students will get knowledge of various graphics and their techniques.
3.The students will get the knowledge of multimedia and its other blocks.

Course Contents:

Unit I: Introduction of CG and Basic Concepts of Drawing 2 hours

Introduction and Development of Graphics system and Field of Computer graphics

Unit II: Overview of Graphics system 3 hours

Video display devices: Refresh cathode-Ray Tubes, Color CRT display, Flat-panel display(LCD, LED and Plasma Display), Raster-Scan systems, and Random-scan systems

Unit III: Graphics Algorithm        4hours

DDA line drawing algorithm, Bresenham's line drawing algorithm, and Midpoint Circle Algorithm

Unit IV: GraphicsDimensions 12 hours

Two-Dimensional Geometric transformations: Translation, Rotation, Scaling, Composite transformation, Homogenous Co-Ordinate System, Two-Dimensional object to screen viewing(Window to viewport coordinate transformation only), Clipping and Cohen Sutherland clipping algorithm, Three- Dimensional object to screen viewing, Extension of two-dimensional  display methods: Parallel Projection(Oblique and orthographic) Perspective Projections

Unit V: Illumination and Rendering      10  hours

Nonplanner surfaces(Bezier Curve and surfaces), Methods of generating non-planner surfaces(Polygon Table, Polygon mesh and Plane equation), Visible surface detection methods(Backface, Z-buffer, and Scanline), Polygon-Rendering methods: constant-Intensity shading, Gouraud Shading, Phong shading, Fast Phong shading, Introduction to OpenGL and its application

Unit VI: Introduction to Multimedia 3hours

Definitions, Application of Multimedia, Multimedia Terms (Project Manager, Multimedia Designer, Interface Designer, Writer, Video Specialist, Audio Specialist, Multimedia Programmer, The sum of the parts)

Unit VII: MediaSoftware        5 hours

Basic Tools (Painting and Drawing Tools, 3-D Modeling and Animation Tools, Image Editing Tools, OCR Software, Sound Editing Programs, Animation, Video, and Digital movies and Players),

Multimedia Authoring Tools, Types of Authoring Tools, Card and Page-bases Authoring Tools, Icon- Based Authoring Tools, Time-Based Authoring Tools, Object-Oriented Tools

Unit VIII: Multimedia Building Blocks 16 hours

Text, Typefaces and fonts, Design Issue, Beyond the Basics, Bitmap, True Type, Postscript (ATM), The Jaggies, Fontographer, Font Monger, Font Chameleon, Icons and Symbols, Animating text and 3D effects, Logo Motion, Tapestry, ASCLL- standard only 0-127, Sound and Music, The power of sound, Multimedia system sounds, MIDI Vs. Digital Audio-Choosing between MIDI and Digital Audio, Digital Audio, Professional Sound standard (Red Book Standard)-Quality and space considerations, Color Theory, Electromagnetic Spectrum, ROYGBIV: 400nm-600nm, Additive Color:- RGB, Subtractive Color-CMYK, Color Models-RGB, HBS, BSL, CIE YUV, Perception of Color, Graphics and Imaging: Color Depth and File Size, Palette Management, Importing Graphics (Painting vs Drawing, Photoshop and Illustrator, Scanning, PhotoCD, Digital Photography, still images, Screen Capturer (CMb-Shft-3 or Printscreen), Animation: The Power of Motion and Principle of Animation, Animation Technique and Animation file formats, Video: Broadcast Video standards (NTSC, PAL SECAM, HDTV), Integrating computer and Television, Recording Formats, Video compression (JPEG, MPEG, DVI Indeo, Other Compression Methods, Optimizing Video Files


1.Implementation of Bresenham’s line drawing algorithm using C/C++
2.Implementation of mid-point drawing algorithm using C/C++
3.Implementation of Two-Dimensional-Translation, Scaling)
4.Implementation of Two-Dimensional-Rotation
5.Implementation of Two-Dimensional-Scaling
6.Demonstration of multimedia(Integration of multimedia component)
7.Demonstration of Video Compression Technique using library file
8.Demonstration of Animation technique using any programming language

Reference Books:

1.Dnaild Hern and M. Pauline Baker: Computer Graphics, Prentice-Hall.
2.Tay Vaughan: Multimedia: Making it work, 4th ed, Osborne McGraw-Hill Publisher; 1998
3.Malay K. Pakhira, Computer Graphics Multimedia, and Animation Second Edition PHI Publication.

Database Management System (3-0-3)


Theory Practical Total
Sessional 50 - 50
Final 50 - 50
Total 100 - 100

Course Objectives

To be familiar with the application of the RDBMS in the enterprise.
Students will be exposed to file organization and secondary storage structure.
To create the normalized database and create the correct forms of joins.
Automatically complete or revert the transaction.
To Create advance level database constraints.
To understand the concept of Object-Oriented Database and its advantages.

Course Contents:

Unit I: Operating System Overview 3 hours

Introduction to Database management system, Brief History of Database Management system Approach, components of a database management system.

Unit II: Designing a Database 5 hours

Introduction, the Feasibility study, Designing systems, Identifying user requirements Designing systems with E-R Diagram, UML Class Diagrams, Use Case Diagram, Activity diagram, System sequence diagram, Classes and Entities, Associations and times, Binary Objects, Computed values.

Unit III: Data Normalization 6 hours

Introduction, Tables, Classes, and Keys, First Normal form, Second Normal Form, Third Normal form, Beyond Third Normal form, Data Rules and Integrity, Business Rules and Its effects, converting a class Diagram to Normalized Tables, Data Dictionary

Unit IV: Queries in Database 3 hours

Introduction, Creating a Query, Computations, Multiple Tables: Joining Tables, Identifying, Columns in Different Tables, Joining Many Tables, Hints on Joining Tables, Table Alias, Creating a View

Unit V Advanced Queries in Database 6 hours

Introduction, Subqueries, More features and Tricks with SQL SELECT: Outer Joins, UNION, INTERSECT, EXCEPT, Multiple join Columns, Reflexive join, CASE Function, Inequality joins, Cross Tabulation, Questions with "Every" Need the EXISTS clause, SQL SELECT summary; SQL Data Definition Commands, SQL Data Manipulation Commands: INSERT and DELETE, UPDATE, Union.

Unit VI: Developing Stored Procedures 6 hours

Managing stored procedures, Create, Alter, Drop, Execute stored procedure, Encryption, Passing data to stored procedures, Parameter default, Table-valued parameter, Returning data from stored procedure output parameter using the return statement

Unit VII: Creating DML triggers 4 hours

Transaction flow, Creating Triggers, Triggers limitation, Disabling trigger, Developing multi-row enabled triggers

Unit VIII: PhysicalDesign          3 hours

Introduction, Physical Data Storage, Data Storage Methods, Data Clustering, and Partitioning

Unit IX: Database Application Types 4 hours

Database Application Types: On-Line Transaction Processing, On-Line Application Processing, Data Warehouses, and Data Mining; Backup and Recovery.

Unit X: Distributed Database System

4 hours Introduction, Distributed Databases, Client/Server Databases, Client/server versus File server, Brief Introduction to data Assess API (ODBC, DB Library, DAO, ADO, JDBC, OLEDB), Three-Tier Client/Server Model, The Back End: server Databases.

Unit XI: Objected oriented database 4 hours

Introduction, Data Types and Objects, Object-Oriented Databases, and SQL3.

Text Book:

1.Gerald V.Post: Database Management Systems, McGraw Hill International Edition.

Reference books

1.Microsoft SQL server 2008 –Bible Nielsen White &Parui, publication Wiley India.
2.Database System Concepts” by Henry F.Korth& Abraham Silberschatz.
3.System Analysis and Design Method 7’th Edition, Author: Jeffer L Whitten, Lonnie D, Bentley, Kevin C Dittman

Visual Programming (3-0-3)


Theory Practical Total
Sessional 50 - 50
Final 50 - 50
Total 100 - 100

Course Objectives:

After the completion of this course students will be able to:
1.Describe how executable code is created with a complied language
2.Apply the power of .Net technologies and reasons why it is more powerful today.
3.Comfortably use the visual basic.NET editor
4.Create fairly sophisticated visual Basic.NET Programs.
4.Know what is meant by object-oriented event-driven programming?
5.Build, Compile, and execute VB .NET Program
6.Apply Technique to develop error-free software

Course Contents:

Unit I: Introduction 3 hours

Introduction to Visual Studio 2010, Introduction of .NET framework 4.0, New Features of NET Framework 4.0, NET Framework class library, Meta Data and Assemblies, LINQ

Unit II: To Develop the VB.NET Projects With Simple Components 5 hours

 Creating Windows Applications, Docking the Windows, Specifying the .NET framework version for Project, Creating multiform windows application, Loading, Showing, and Unloading Form

Basic Components

i)Label, Link Label, Text box, Button, Checked List Box, Radio Button, Check Box list, Hscrollbar, Vscrollbar, Combo Box, List Box, Group Box, Text Box, RitchText Box, Timer, ListView, Masked Text Box, Picture Box
ii)Code Editor, WPF Designers, Class View, IntelliSense, Object Browser, The Solution Explorer, Property Window, The Output Window, Command Window

Unit III: The Language 4 hours

Option and Import Statement, Namespaces, Data Types, Variables and Constants, Datatype conversion, Scope and lifetime of Variables, Operators: Arithmetic, assignment, comparison, concatenation, logical bitwise, Arrays, Dynamic arrays and Enumerations.

Unit IV:  Control Flow Statements   4 hours

1 Conditional Statement: if-else statement, if-else statement, select case statement, 2 Iteration Statements: Do while loop, While loop, For loop, for each, For Each-Next loop, 3 Jump Statements: goto, exit, continue, return

Unit V: Procedures, Function, Scope, and Exception 5 hours

Sub Procedures and Arguments, Functions and Arguments, Scope, Block Scope, Procedure Scope, Module Scope, Namespace cope, Exception Handling, unstructured Exception Handling, Structured Exception Handling, Raising an Exceptional Intentionally (by using the unstructured method), Exception
filtering in the Catch Block, Multiple Catch, Finally Statement, Throwing an Exception, Throwing a Custom Exception

Unit VI: Object-Oriented Programming 4 hours

Creating Class, Creating constructor, Creating object, Creating destructor, Implementation inheritance, Implementing   shadowing, Creating abstract classes and methods, Creating and implementing the interface

Unit VII: Windows Forms: User Interface Elements their properties, method, and events   5 hours 

Text box, Retch Text Box, Labels, Masked Text Box Control, Buttons, Checkboxes, and Radio  Buttons

Unit VIII: Windows Forms: Advance User Interface Elements their properties, method and
events 8 hours

List boxes, Checked List Boxes, Split Container Control, Combo Box, Picture boxes, Scroll bars, Image List, Tree View, ListView, Tab Control, Tooltips control, Panels, Timer

Unit IX: Windows Forms: Menus, and Built-in Dialog Boxes 4 hours 

Tool Strip Control, Tool Strip Item Class, Menu Strip Control, Tool Strip Menu Item Class, Context Menu Strip control, Status Strip Control, Dialog Box Control, Open File Dialog Control, Save File Dialog Control, Font Dialog Control, Color Dialog Control, and Printing Control

Unit X: Database programming with ADO.NET 6 hours 

Overview of ADO.NET, Architecture of ADO.NET, Data Provider in ADO.NET, Data Set, Data Repeater, Accessing Data using Server Explorer, Creating Connection, Command, Data Adapter and Data Set with OLEDB and SQLDB. Adding Data from Textboxes to Database, Display Data on data-bound controls, display data on data grid view.


1.Steven Kogent,” VB.NET 2010 Programming Black Book” , Dream tech pub.
2.“Introduction to .NET framework”, Wrox publication
3.“Mastering VB.NET by Evangelospetroutsos” BPB publications
4.Istvan Novak, Andras Velvart, Adam Granicz.” Visual Studio 2010 and .NET “ISBN-0470499486

CMP 230 Operating System (3-1-0)


Theory Practical Total
Sessional 50 - 50
Final 50 - 50
Total 100 - 100


The main objective of this course is to provide basic operational principles and concepts that govern the design of the modern operating system used in PC. In particular, the course will cover kernel, types of operating system (zoo), function (process management, memory management, I/O device management, security management, file management, etc).

Course Contents:

Unit I: Introduction to Operating System 2 hours

Introduction and history, Objectives (Resource manager and extended machine), Types of the operating system, Function of the operating system, Different views of OS

Unit II:  Operating System Structure 2 hours

Kernel of Operating System, Monolithic System, Layered System, Microkernel, Exokernels, Client-server Model, Virtual Machines

Unit III: Process Management

-Process Concepts (3 hours)

Definitions of Process, Process states, Process state transition, The process Control Block, Operations on processes (creation, Termination, Hierarchies, Implementation), The Process Model
Cooperating Processes

-Threads (2 hours)

Definitions of Threads, Types of thread process ( Single and multithreaded process), Benefits of Multithread Multithreading Models (Many-to-one model, One-to-One Model, Many-to-many model)

-Process Scheduling (5 hours)

Basic Concept, Type of scheduling (Preemptive scheduling, Non preemptive scheduling, batch, Interactive, real-time scheduling), Scheduling Criteria or performance analysis, Scheduling Algorithm (Round-robin, First come first served, Shortest-job- first, the Shortest process next, Shortest remaining Time next, real-time, priority fair share, guaranteed, Lottery scheduling), Some examples on scheduling

-Interprocess Communication and synchronization (6 hours)

Introduction, Race condition, Critical Regions, Avoiding critical region: Mutual Exclusion and Serializability, Mutual exclusion conditions, Proposals  for  achieving  Mutual  exclusion: disabling interrupts, Lock variable, Strict Alteration ( Peterson’s Solution), The TSL instruction, Sleep and wakeup, Types of mutual exclusion (Semaphore, Monitors, Bounded buffer), Serializability: Locking Protocols and Time Stamp Protocols

Unit IV: Input/ Output Device Management 5 hours 

System model, Ways to manage Input / Output Devices: Memory-mapped I/O, programmed I/O, Principle of I/O Hardware: I/O Devices, Device Controllers, Direct memory Access, Principle of  I/O, Software: Interrupts Handlers, Device driver, Device-Independent I/O Software User –Space I/o Software, System Resources: Preempt able and Nonpreemptable, Method of handling Deadlocks Deadlock prevention, Deadlock avoidance: Banker’s Algorithm, Deadlock detection: Resource allocation graph, Recovery from Deadlock

Unit V: Memory Management 10 hours

-Basic memory management (6 hours)

Introduction: Logical versus physical address space, Memory management with Swapping: Memory management with bitmaps and with a linked list, Memory management without swapping, Contiguous-memory allocation: memory protection, memory allocation, Fragmentation (Inter fragmentation and external fragmentation), Paging, Structure of page Table: Hierarchical page table, Hashed page table, Inverted page table, Shared Page Table, Segmentation, Segmentation with paging

-Virtual memory (4 hours)

Background, Demand paging, Page replacement, Page replacement algorithms: FIFO, OPR, LRU, Some examples on page replacement, Thrashing

Unit VI: File System interface management 3 hours

File concept: File Naming, File structure, File Type, File access, File attributes, and File operation, Directories: Single-level directory systems, Hierarchical Directory systems, Pathnames, Directory operation, Access Methods: Sequential, Direct, other access methods, Protection: Types of access, Access control, File System Implementation: Contiguous allocation, Linked list allocation, linked list allocation using an Index

Unit VII: Security management 3 hours

Introduction, Security problems, User Authentication: Passwords, password Vulnerabilities, Encrypted password, One-time password, Biometrics password, User Authorization, Program Threats: Trojan Horse, Trap Door, Stack, and Buffer overflow, System Threats: Worms, Viruses, Denial of Services, Cryptography: Encryption and Decryption, Protection Mechanism: Protection Domain, Access Control List, Capabilities, Trusted System,

Unit VIII: Distributed operating system 3 hours

Introduction, Advantages of the distributed system over centralized System, Advantages of the distributed system over Independent PCs, Disadvantages of distributed System, Layered protocols, The Client-server Model, message passing, Remote procedure Call, Process in the distribution system

Unit IX: Case Study Issues 3 hours.

DOS and Windows Operating system and Unix Operating system

Unit X: Future issues 1 hour

Memory wall and Some future of OS about speed

Reference Books:

1)Andrew s. Tanenbaum, “Modern Operating System” , PHI, 3rd Ed. 2011
2)A. Silberschatz, P.B. Galvin, G. Gagne “ Operating System Concepts”, Wiley, 8th Ed.
3)Andrew s. Tanenbaum, “Distributed  Operating System” , Pearson
2) DM Dhamdhere, “System Programming and Operating System” - Tata McGraw-Hill, 20

MTH 214.3 Numerical Methods (3-0-1)


Theory Practical Total
Sessional 50 - 50
Final 50 - 50
Total 100 - 100

Course Objectives:

This course aims to provide familiarity with the theory of numerical analysis for solving algebraic and transcendental equations, solution of ordinary and partial differential equations related to engineering problems, numerical differentiation and integration.

Course Contents:

Unit I: Solution of Nonlinear Equations 10 hours

Review of calculus and Taylor's theorem, Errors in numerical calculations, Trial and error method, Bisection method, Newton's method, Secant method and their convergence, Fixed point iteration and is convergence

Unit II: Solution of Linear Algebraic Equations 10 hours 

Review of the existence of solutions and properties of matrices, Gaussian Elimination method, pivoting, ill-conditioning, Gauss-Jordan method, Inverse of a matrix using Gauss elimination method, Method of factorization, Dolittle algorithm, Cholesky's factorization, Iterative solutions, Solving eigenvalue problems using a power method

Unit III: NumericalDifferentiation and Integration 6 hours 

Newton's differentiation formulas, Maxima and minima of tabulated function, Netwon-one's quadrature formulas, Gaussian integration algorithm, Romberg integration formulas

Unit IV: InterpolationandApproximation 8 hours 

Lagrange's polynomials, Newton's interpolation using difference and divided differences. Cubic spline interpolation, Least squares method for linear and nonlinear data

Unit V: Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations 8 hours

Review of differential equations, initial value problem, Taylor series method picard's method, Euler's method and its accuracy, Henu's method, Runge-Kutta methods, Solution of the higher-order equations, Boundary value problems, Shooting method, and its algorithm

Unit VII: Solution of Partial Differential Equations 6 hours 

Review of partial differential equations, Deriving difference equations, Laplacian equation and Poisson's equation, engineering examples

Text Book:

1. C.F. Gerald and P.O. Wheatly: Applied Numerical Analysis, 4th Edition, Addison Wesley Publishing Company, New York.
Reference Book:
1.W. Cheney and D. Kincaid: Numerical Mathematics and Computing, 2nd Edition, Brooks Cole Publishing Co, 1985.
2.W.H. Press, B.P. Flannery Numerical Recipes in C, 1st Edition, Cambridge press, 1988.
3.S. Yakwitz and F. Szidarovszky: An Introduction to Numerical Computations, 2nd Edition, Macmillan Publishing Co., New York.

PRJ 141.2 Project II (0-0-2)


Theory Practical Total
Sessional - 50 50
Final - 50 50
Total 100 100
Course Objectives:
4.To develop the concept of programming using PLT.
5.Implementing various programming techniques using SAD.
6.To develop the real based project using programming language VB .Net and database System language.

Course Contents: 30 hours

The following are documentation guidelines to be given to each student along with an assignment that should cover most of the main topics given in the framework.
Cover Page
Executive summary
Introduction, The Assignment project, Objective of Assignment project, Time Plan for the work assigned, Investigation of the problems, System Analysis: Feasibility study, Context Diagram, Data Flow Diagram, System Design: ER and implementation, User interface, Program Specification, Algorithms, Flowchart or Decision tree of Decision Table or Structure English, Program coding, Input test Data, Program Testing, Output/Reports, Computer (software and Hardware) requirement to run this program, Software Installation and operation procedures, Comments on the Assignment project if any (How did he/she find it? Time provided and resources along with the teacher’s guidance at required of the student or not. What improvement you would make if certain asked things provided to you? Conclusion and recommendation, Users Manual

Special attention

Each student should be given ample opportunity to use the computer system for the assigned project work. A sample format of project work could be given to the students before assigning the work.

The computer system must have the required necessary software packages and programs installed in order to accomplish the tasks assigned to them. The teacher could guide students during the development work assign to students. Generally, an individual project is more preferable because he/she can learn more on the project but project work can be done in a group (maximum of 4 persons in each group).

Java Programming (3-0-3) (Semester V)

Theory Practical Total
Sessional 30 20 50
Final 50 - 50
Total 80 20 100

Course Objectives:

1.To enable the students to understand the core principles of the Java Language.
2.To use visual tools to produce well designed, effective applications and applets.
3.To enable students to learn to produce well designed, effective standalone applications.
4.To enable students to do socket programming, database handling using JDBC

Unit1 Topic Hours    7

Introduction to Core Java:
History of java, platform independency, Introduction to JVM architecture, Object-Oriented features with respect to Java, Class, and Object, Operators, data types, arrays, Inheritance, Interfaces, Packages
and Exception Handling

Unit 2 Applet As Java Applications:    4

Introduction to the application, Lifecycle of Applets, Applets and its methods, Applet Vs Applications

Unit 3 Multithreading:     4

Introduction to thread, Multithreading concepts, Thread Life cycle, Creating multithreaded application, Thread priorities, and Thread synchronization

Unit 4 Java Input Output:    5

Java IO package, Byte/Character Stream, Buffered reader / writer, File reader / writer, Print writer and File Sequential / Random

Unit 5 Java GUI Components:   10

Containers, Frames and Panels, Layout manager, Introduction to Netbeans IDE, Event delegation Model, Event source and handler, Event categories,
Listeners, interfaces, adaptor classes, Swing Libraries, Model View controller design pattern Different layout and All swing components

Unit 6 Networking with Java:   6

Networking basics, Sockets, port, Proxy servers, Internet addressing URL, – Networking classes and Interfaces, Implementing TCP/IP based Server and Client, Datagrams–Datagram packet, Datagram server and client,

Unit 7 JDBC:    6

Java database connectivity, Types of JDBC drivers, Writing first JDBC applications, Types of statement objects (Statement, PreparedStatement and
CallableStatement), Types of resultset, ResultSetMetadata, CRUD operations in database, JDBC and AWT and Connection pooling

Unit 8 Generics:    6

Introduction to generics, Generics class with parameters, General form of a generic class, Creating a generic method, constructors, interfaces, and Polymorphism in generics
Total Hours 48


1.Demonstrate uses of arrays, operators.
2.Write a java code to demonstrate inheritance, multilevel inheritance, multiple inheritances using interfaces, creation and use of own packages.
3.Demonstrate exception handling (try-catch-finally, throws etc).
4.Create an Applet and embedded it in an HTML page.
5.Demonstrate multi-threading
6.Demonstrate sequential and random reading and writing of files
7.Design AWT/Swing form with all swing controls.
8.Demonstrate TCP and UDP based client server connection.
9.Demonstrate CRUD operations of the database with help of AWT/Swing controls
10.Demonstrate use of the generic method, constructors, and interfaces

Text Book

1. Herbert Schildt, Java The Complete Reference, Tata McGraw Hill Edition

Reference Books

1.Kogent, Java 6 Programming Black Book, Dreamtech Publication
2.Cay S Horstmann, Fary Cornell Core Java 2 Volume – I, Sun Microsystem press
3.Cay S Horstmann, Fary Cornell Core Java 2 Volume – II, Sun Microsystem press
4.E.Balguruswami Programming with Java, A Primer, Tata McGraw Hill Edition

MTH 122.3 Mathematical Foundation of Computer Science (3-2-1)


Theory Practical Total
Sessional 50 - 50
Final 50 - 50
Total 80 - 100

Course Objectives:

1.The main objective of this course is to buildup the mathematical foundation for the study of computational science and computer technology.
2.This course introduces the student to discrete mathematics and finite state automata through an algorithmic approach and focuses on various problems solving techniques.
3.It helps the target student in gaining fundamental and conceptual clarity in the area of Logic Reasoning. Algorithms, Recurrence relation. Graph Theory, and Theory of Automata.

Course Contents:

Unit I: Graph Theory      15 hours

Definitions, Directed, and Undirected Graphs. Walk, Path, Circuits, Connected Components. Connected Component Algorithm, Shortest –Path Algorithm.Computer representation a graph (Static Representation only, like Adjacency Matrix, Incidence Matrix, Path Matrix): Bi-partite graphs. Regular graphs, Planar graphs. Euler graph. Hamilton graph and their properties and characterization.Application of graph theory in computer science (with example).

Unit II: Logic and Induction 8 hours

Propositions and Truth functions, Predicates and Quantification, Propositional and Predicate Logic, Expressing statement in the language of Logic. Deduction in Predicate Logic, Elementary Step-wise Induction, and Complete Induction.

Unit III: Introduction to Mathematical Reasoning 7 hours 

Formal Languages and Inductive Definitions: Axioms, Rules of Inference and Proofs, Direct Proof, and Indirect Proof. Formal Proof and Informal Proof.

Unit IV: Recurrence Relations 7 hours

Recursive Definition of Sequences. Differencing and Summation, Solution of Linear Recursive Relation, Solution of Non-linear Recurrence Relation.

Unit V: Finite State Automata 8 hours

Alphabets and Language, Notion of a State. State Machine (FSM and DFA). Regular Expression, Equivalence Relation.

Reference Books:

1.Richard Johnsonbaugh, Discrete Mathematics, Fifth Edition, Addison Wesley, Pearson Education Asia (LPE), ISBN: 81-780-82799, 2000
2.Mott, Joe L., Kandel Abraham and Baker, Theodoe P., Discrete Mathematics for Computer Scientists and Mathematicians, Second Edition, Prentice-Hall, ISBN: 81-203-1502-2
3.Liu, C.L., Elements of Discrete Mathematics, TMH, 2000, ISBN: 0-07-043476-X
4.Trus, J.Discrete Mathematics for Computer Scientists, Second Edition, Addision Wesley ISBN: 0-201-36061,1999

Computer Architecture (3-1-0)


Theory Practical Total
Sessional 50 - 50
Final 50 - 50
Total 100 - 100

Course Objectives

The general objectives of the course are as follows:
To acquaint the students with the fundamentals of computer systems.
To appraise the students with the architectural and associated components of computer systems.
To aware of the students of the architecture of the computer systems available in the market.

Course Contents

Unit I: Introduction 4 hours

Computer Organization and Computer Architecture, Review of Evolution of Computer System Basic Structure of Computer System, Examples of Computer Families, Future Trends in Computer, Review of Instruction Sets, Addressing Modes and Instruction Formats

Unit II: Register Transfer and Micro Operations    2 hours 

Register Transfer and RTL, Micro operations, Data Transfer Micro operations, Arithmetic and Logical Micro operations Shift Micro operations, Introduction to HDL and VHDL

Unit III: Central Processing Unit 3 hours

CPU Organization/Structure, Register Organization and Data Paths, Instruction Cycle, Arithmetic, and Logical Unit and Design Principles for Modern Systems

Unit IV: Computer Arithmetic 6 hours

Integer Representation, Integer Arithmetic, Unsigned Binary Addition and Subtraction, Unsigned Binary Multiplication Algorithm, Booth’s Algorithm, Unsigned Binary Division Algorithm, Floating-Point Representation, BCD Arithmetic Unit, BCD Adder, Arithmetic Pipelining

Unit V: Control Unit 6 hours

Control of the Processor, Hardwired Control Unit: Control Unit Inputs and Control Unit Logic Micro programmed Control Unit: Micro Instructions and Its Types and Architecture of Micro
programmed Control Unit, Micro Instruction Sequencing, Micro Instruction Execution, Applications of Hardwired and Micro programmed Control Units

Unit VI: Memory Organization 6 hours

Memory Hierarchy, Main Memory: RAM and ROM, Auxiliary Memory: Magnetic Disks and Tapes, Optical Disks, Flash Drives, Review of RAID. Associative Memory: Hardware Organization, Address Matching Logic, Read/Write Operations. Cache Memory: Cache Initialization, Mapping Cache Memory, Direct, Associative and Set Associative Memory Mapping Write Policy

Unit VII: Input-Output Organization 4 hours

External Devices, I/O Module Structure, Review of Programmed I/O and Interrupt Driven I/O, Review of DMA, I/O channels and I/O Processors, External Interfaces,

Unit VIII: Reduced Instruction Set Computers 4 hours

RISC VS. CISC, RISC Pipelining, Instruction Pipelining, Conflicts in Instruction Pipelining and their Solutions, Introduction to Register Windows and Register Renaming

Unit IX: Introduction to Parallel Processing 6 hours 

Parallelism in Uniprocessor System, Multiprocessor Systems and their Characteristics Flynn’s Classification, Interconnection Structures in Multiprocessors, Cache Coherence
Introduction to Vector Processing and Array Processors, Introduction to Multithreaded Architecture

Unit X: Multicore Computers 3 hours

Hardware Performance Issues: Increase in Parallelism, Alternative Chip Organizations,
Power Consumption, Software Performance Issues: Software on Multicore, Multicore Organization, Dual Core and Quad Core Processors, Power-efficient Processors


The individual student should develop a project or perform a case study on Computer Architecture. The topic could be either initiated by the student or selected from a list provided by the instructor. An oral presentation with a demonstration in case of a project should be part of the laboratory. Reports must be prepared.

Text Books

Stallings, W., “Computer Organization and Architecture”, Eighth Edition, 2011, Pearson.
Mano, M.M., “Computer Systems Architecture”, Third Edition, 2011, Pearson.


Tanenbaum, A.S., “Structured Computer Organization”, Fourth Edition, 2003, Pearson Education.
Carpinelli, J.D., “Computer Systems Organization and Architecture”, 2012, Pearson.
Rajaraman, V. et al, “Computer Organization and Architecture”, 2011, PHI.
Sima, D. et all, “Advanced Computer Architecture”, 2000, Addison Wesley.

Software Engineering


Theory Practical Total
Sessional      40 10              50
Final 50 - 50
Total 90       10 100

Course Objectives:

The course objective is to provide the required knowledge on planning, design, development, implementation, and maintenance of software.

Course Contents:

Unit I: Introduction 4 hours

History of software engineering, Introduction, Role of software engineering, Software Development, and Software Engineering, Attribute of good software, Different between software engineering and system Engineering, Some challenges of software Engineering. Software Engineering Ethics

Unit II: Software Specification 4 hours

The Uses of Specification: A statement of User requirement, A statement of the interface between the machine and the control environment, A statement of the requirement for the implementation, A reference point during product maintenance, Specification Qualities, Classification of Specification styles, Verification of specifications, Types of Specification: Operational and descriptive  specifications, Operational specifications: DFD UML diagrams for specifying Behaviors, Finite State Machine

Unit III: Software Testing Techniques and Strategies 7 hours 

Software Testing Fundamentals: Testing objectives, How to test information flows, Testing lifecycle, Test Cases (What it is?) Levels of Testing: Unit Testing, Integration Testing, System Testing, Acceptance Testing, Alpha testing & Beta testing, Static vs. Dynamic testing, Manual vs. Automatic testing, Testers workbench, steps of the testing process (Only steps should be covered)
Different types of Testing: Installation Testing, Usability testing, Regression testing, Performance Testing, Load Testing, Stress Testing, Security testing Black Box & White Box Testing (Test Case Design Techniques): Functional Testing (Black Box), Structural Testing (White Box), Domain Testing Nonfunctional testing techniques, Validation testing Activities (Low-level testing, high-level testing) Black-box vs. White Box

Unit IV: Software Qualities and Software Quality Assurance 10 hours 

Software quality and quality assurance, Software quality factors, Software quality assurance, SQA activates, Software quality standards: SEI, ISO, Software reviews, Cost impact of software defects,
Defect amplification and removal, Formal technical reviews, The review meeting, Review reporting and record-keeping, Review guidelines, A review checklist, Formal approaches to SQA, Proof of correctness Statistical quality assurance, The cleanroom process

Unit V: Software reliability 6 hours
Measures of reliability and availability, Software reliability models, Software safety

Unit VI: Management of Software Engineering      7 hours 

Responsibilities of a software project manager, Job responsibilities of a software project manager, Skills necessary for software project management, Project Planning, The SPMP document, Metrics for project size estimation, Line of code (LOC), Function point metric, Project estimation techniques, Empirical estimation techniques, Expert judgment technique, Delphi cost estimation, Heuristic techniques, Basic COCOMO model, Analytical estimation techniques, Scheduling, Organization and team structure, Organization structure, Team structure, Staffing, Quality of software engineer, Risk Management, Risk Identification, Risk assessment, Risk containment, Software configuration management, Necessity of software configuration management, Configuration management activities, Source code control system (SCCS) and RCS

Unit VII: Object-Oriented Concepts and Principles 4hours

Object-Oriented Paradigm, Object-Oriented Concepts, Management of Object-Oriented Software Projects

Unit VIII: Emerging Trends 3 hours

Client-server software, CORBA, COM/DCOM, Service-oriented architecture (SOA), Software as a service (SaaS) Case Study: An individual case study should be given to each student on a software project. 10% of sessional marks should be allocated for evaluation, Text Books: Pressman. R. S. :
Software Engineering a Practitioner Approach. McGraw Hill, 2. Mall. R.: Fundamentals of Software Engineering. PHI.

Reference Books:

1.C. Ghezzi, M. Jazayeri, and D. Mandrioli: Fundaments of Software Engineering, Prentice Hall of India, Ltd. Sommerville. I.: Software Engineering, Pearson
2.Bali-Bali: Software Engineering, S.K. Kataria & Sons
3.Pankaj Jalote’s: Software Engineering- A precise Approach Wiley India
4.Richard Fairley: Software Engineering Concepts, Tata McGraw-Hill Edition
5.Eve Andersson, Philip Greenspun, Andrew Grumet: Software Engineering or Internet Applications, PHI

Web Technologies I


Theory Practical Total
Sessional 30 20 50
Final 50 - 50
Total 80 20 100

Course Objectives:

1.To focus on the phenomenon known as the World Wide Web (WWW) and Domain name hierarchy.
2.To impart the new concepts in Web Technologies.
3.To identify, evaluate, and apply appropriate technologies for web development.
4.To develop an understanding of the different technologies used in the World Wide Web including the concept of HTML, CSS, Javascript, XML, and jQuery.

Learning Outcome

1.This course enables students to understand web page site planning and management.
2. Students will be able to develop advanced HTML pages with help of frames, scripting languages, and evolving technologies like CSS, jQuery, and XML.
Unit I: Internet and WWW 4 hours

Introduction to internet and its applications, Internet service providers, domain name server, internet address; Protocols used in the internet (HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, SMTP, TCP, IP, UDP); World Wide Web and its evolution, uniform resource locator (URL), web server and browsers; search engine, metasearch engine; Domain name and its hierarchy, Issues related with domain name registration, DNS concept; Client-server architecture, cross-browser communication

Unit II: HTML and Graphics         10 hours

Introduction to HTML,<!doctype>, Creating basic HTML file, core elements and attributes, comment, <meta>;
HTML basis Basic text formatting, Phrase elements, lists, ordered lists, unordered lists, nesting of lists, Using character entities for special character, <font> element and attributes; Grouping elements
Links and Navigation Linking to other
web pages, linking to an email address, Understanding directories and directories structure, Understanding URLs, Absolute and relative URLs, Advanced email links;

Images, Audio and Video
Adding images, images as link, Image maps, Client side and server side image
maps; Choosing the right image format, Gif images, animated gif, jpeg, png, keeping file size small; Working with multimedia, Exploring audio and video
file formats, describing multimedia elements, <embed>, <object>, <audio>, <video>, embedding video from other websites, initializing an object using <param> element
Introducing tables Basic table elements and attributes, Grouping section of;, table, Nested Tables, Accessible tables, How to linearize tables using ID, scope and header attributes;

Introducing forms, attributes, controls in form, <fieldset> and <legend> elements; Focus, Tabbing order, access keys, Disabled and read only controls, Sending form data to the servers, http get, http post
Introducing frameset, When to use frames, <frameset> element, Attributes, Nested framesets, Inline or floating frames with <iframe>;
Exploring new elements of HTML 5
<input> types,<keygen>, <progress>, <meter>, <command>, <menu>, <header> and
<footer>,Spell check attribute;

Unit III: Scripting language          10 hours

Introduction to the scripting language, Difference between client-side and server-side scripting language, Features of javascript, What javascript can and cannot do, Using javascript in HTML document;
Programming fundamentals
Variables, operators, control flow statements, popup boxes;
Javascript functions
Defining and invoking a function, function argument, return statement, calling a function with timer;
Events and Event Handlers
General Information about Events, Defining Event Handlers, events in javascript
Javascript objects
Properties of an object, methods of an object,
working with browsers object
Understanding window object, object collection, object properties, object methods;
Exploring document object methods, understanding DOM nodes;

Unit IV: Style sheets 10 hours

Introduction to stylesheets, Value of stylesheets, stylesheet rules, and syntax; Creating simple stylesheets, adding comments on style sheets, exploring cascading order, working with properties and selectors, applying multiple properties to the selector, grouping selector, applying contextual selectors, applying selector class, applying with associated elements; Applying <div> tag to the style sheet, applying <span> to the stylesheet, linking stylesheets, creating CSS file, linking multiple pages to CSS file; CSS properties Controlling text, Text formatting, Text pseudo-classes, lengths, Introducing the box model; Links, backgrounds, lists, tables, outline, positioning and layout with CSS;

Unit V: Extensible Markup Language (XML) 6 hours

XML: Introduction, Structure of XML: Logical Structure, Physical Structure; Naming Rules, Element Content Models, Element Occurrence Indicators, Character Content Document Type Declaration (DTD) and Validation, Developing a DTD, XML Schema, basic example; XSL (Extensible Style Sheet Language) or CSS (Cascading Style Sheet); XML processors: DOM and SAX

Unit VI: Introducing j Query 2 hours

Why jquery, Jquery fundamentals, Page layout using jquery;

Unit VII: Page layout and Design issues 3 hours

Page Layout: Understanding site audience, page size and screen resolution, designing pages, coding your design, developing for mobile devices; Design issues: Typography, navigation, tables, forms;

Laboratory Work List of Practical:

1.Design a web page using different text formatting tags.
2.Design a web page with links to different pages and allow navigation between pages.
3.Design a web page with Imagemaps.
4.Design a web page with different tables. Include nesting of tables on the web page.
5.Design a webpage using frames.
6.Using Java Script design a web page that prints factorial / Fibonacci series / any given series.
7.Design a form with a text box and a command button. Using Java Script write a program whether the number entered in the text box is a prime number or not.
8.Design a form with all controls and validate all the controls placed on the form using JavaScript.
9.Design a website using style sheets so that the pages have a uniform style.
10.Design a DTD, corresponding XML document, and display it in the browser using CSS.
11.Design an XML document and display it in the browser using XSL.
12.Design XML Schema and corresponding XML document.

Text Books

1.HTML black book – Steven Holzner, Dreamtech press
2.Beginning HTML, XHTML, CSS and Java Script – Jon Duckett, Wiely India Edition

Reference Books

1.Web Technologies Black Book - Kogent learning solutions
2.Java Script step by step - Steve Suehring East economy edition
3.Jquery in Action – Bear Bibeault, Yehuda Katz
4.The complete reference HTML and CSS - Thomas A. Powell Tata Mcgraw Hill edition

Note: All the information is collected from the document published by the BCA department of Pokhara University on its suggestions. 

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